B Pharma Pharmacy 8th Semester Syllabus

B Pharma Pharmacy 8th Semester Syllabus 

Syllabus

EIGHTTH SEMESTER


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BOP-481

PHARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTRY-IX
(CHEMISTRY OF NATURAL PRODUCTS)

Unit I

General methods of isolation and separation of plant constituents, qualitative tests for the detection
of plant constituents. Application of spectral techniques in the structure determination of natural
products.
Biogenetic investigations and basic metabolic pathways (Alkaloids, Terpenes, Steroids). Brief
introduction to biogenesis of secondary metabolites of pharmaceutical importance (Atropine,
Quinine, Papaverine, Morphine and Reserpine).

Unit II

Extraction, isolation and structure elucidation of alkaloids: Tropanes (Atropine); Phenanthrenes
(Morphine); Quinolines (Quinine); Isoquinolines (Papaverine); Indoles (Reserpine).

Unit III

Extraction, isolation and structure elucidation ofGlycosides: Digoxin.
Flavonoids: Quercetin.
Lignans: Podophyllotoxin.
Purines: Caffeine.

Unit IV

Extraction, isolation and structure elucidation ofTerpenoids: Camphor, Menthol, Citral.
Carotenoids: β- Carotene.
Vitamins: α -Tocopherol.
Quassinoids: Quassin.

Unit V

Natural allergens, photosensitizing agents and fungal toxins.
Role of natural products in drug discovery and development.
Recent developments of natural products used as anticancer agents, antidiabetics, antimalarials and
immunomodulators.

BOP-481P

PHARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTRY-IX
(CHEMISTRY OF NATURAL PRODUCTS) PRACTICAL

1. Laboratory experiments on extraction (conventional/microwave assisted), isolation, separation
and purification of various groups of chemical constituents of pharmaceutical significance.
2. Exercises on paper and thin layer chromatographic evaluation of herbal drug constituents.
3. Isolation of volatile oils and their chromatographic profiles.
SUGGESTED EXPERIMENTS
1. Isolation of Caffeine from tea leaves.
2. Isolation of Piperine from black pepper.
3. Isolation of Hesperidin from orange peel.
4. Isolation of Clove oil from clove.
5. Isolation of Caraway oil from caraway.
6. Isolation of Cumin oil from cumin.
7. To study the TLC profile of extracted oils.
8. To perform the column chromatography of any available herb.
9. To study the paper chromatographic profile of glycone portion separated from senna.
10. To isolate the active constituent of any available drug with the help of preparative TLC.
11. Quantitative determination of Ascorbic Acid present in amla.

BOOKS RECOMMENDED

1. Brain K.R. and Turner T.D., The Practical Evaluation of Phytopharmaceutical, Wright, Bristol.
2. Kokate C.K., “Practical Pharmacognosy” Vallabh Prakashan, New Delhi.
3. Stahl E., Thin Layer Chromatography: A Laboratory Hand Book, Springer International
Edition, New York.
4. Harborne J.B., Phytochemical Methods: A Guide to Modern Techniques of Plant Analysis,
Springer (India) Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi.
5. Dewick P.M., Medicinal Natural Products: A Biosynthetic Approach, John Wiley and Sons
Ltd., England.
6. Wagner H., Plant Drug Analysis, Springer, Berlin.
7. Cutler S.J. and Cutler H.G., Biologically Active Natural Products: Pharmaceuticals, CRC
Press, London.
8. Manitto P., Biosynthesis of Natural Products, BSP Books Pvt. Ltd., Hyderabad.
9. Finar I.L.,Organic chemistry, Volume II: Stereochemistry and the Chemistry of Natural
Products, Pearson Education, New Jersey.
10. Indian Herbal Pharmacopoeia, Indian Drug Manufacturers Association and Regional Research
Laboratory, Jammu.
11. Agarwal O.P., Organic Chemistry, Natural Products, Krishna Prakashan Media (P) Ltd.,
Meerut.
12. Evans V.C., Trease and Evans Pharmacognosy, Harcourt Publishers Ltd., Sydney.
13. Wallis T. E., Textbook of Pharmacognosy, CBS Publishers and Distributors, New Delhi.
14. Kokate C.K., Practical Pharmacognosy, Vallabh Prakashan, Delhi.
15. Jarald E.E. and Jarald S.E., Textbook of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, CBS Publishers
and Distributors Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi.
16. Tyler V.E., “Pharmacognosy” Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia.
17. Deore S.L., Khadabadi S.S., Baviskar B.A., Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry: A
Comprehensive Approach, PharmaMed Press, Hyderabad.
18. Prasad M. R, Rao A.R., Advanced Medicinal Chemistry: A Laboratory Guide, PharmaMed
Press, Hyderabad.

BOP-482

PHARMACEUTICS-X
PHARMACEUTICAL BIOTECHNOLOGY

Unit I

Immunology and immunological preparations: Principles, antigen and haptens, immune system,
cellular and humoral immunity, immunological tolerance, antigen-antibody reactions and their
applications, standardization and storage of vaccine.

Unit II

Recombinant DNA technology: A brief introduction to genetic engineering and techniques,
production of r-DNA and their application, development of hybridoma for monoclonal antibodies
and their application, protoplast fusion and biotechnological production of products such as
Insulin and Somatotropin.

Unit III

Antibiotics: Screening of soil for organisms producing antibiotics.
Fermentor: Basic design, control of different parameters and application.
Isolation of mutants and factors affecting mutation.

Unit IV

Microbial transformation: Introduction, types of reactions mediated by microorganisms,
selection of organisms, methodology of biotransformation, process improvements with special
reference to steroids.

Unit V

Enzyme immobilization: Sources of enzymes, techniques of immobilization of enzymes and cell,
advantages and limitation of immobilization, application of immobilization in pharmacy.
Biotechnological production and pharmaceutical application of enzymes such as penicillinase, αgalactosidase, amylases and proteases. 

BOP-482P

PHARMACEUTICS-X
PHARMACEUTICAL BIOTECHNOLOGY PRACTICAL

1. Estimation of protein in given sample.
2. Production of protoplast fused cells by chemical method.
3. Production of protoplast fused cells by mechanical method.
4. Estimation of immunological reaction (blood group etc.).
5. Assay of antibiotics.
6. Screening of soil for antibiotic producing microorganisms.
7. Immobilization of drug.
8. Immobilization of enzyme.
9. Immobilization of cell.
10. Protein estimation by gel electrophoresis.
11. Isolation of enzymes from natural sources.

BOOKS RECOMMENDED

1. Prescott and Dunn’s Industrial Microbiology, CBS Publishers and Distributors, New Delhi.
2. Vyas S.P. and Dixit V.K., Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, CBS Publication, New Delhi.
3. Kieslich K. , Biotechnology, Verleg Chernie, Switzerland.
4. Standury P.F.,Whitaker A. & Hall S.J. ,Principles of Fermentation, Aditya Book Private
Limited, New Delhi.
5. Crueger W. & Crueger A, Biotechnology- A Textbook of Industrial Microbiology, Panima
Publishing Corporation, Delhi.

BOP-483

PHARMACEUTICS-XI
PHARMACEUTICAL MANAGEMENT & MARKETING

Unit I

Concepts of management: Definition, administrative management (planning, organizing, staffing,
directing and controlling). Entrepreneurship development, introduction to operative management
(personnel, materials, production, financial management).

Unit II

Principles of management: Coordination, communication, motivation, decision making,
leadership, innovation and creativity.
Production management: A brief study of the different aspects of production management,
methodology of activities: performance evaluation, review technique, maintenance management.

Unit III

Pharmaceutical marketing: Introduction to pharmaceutical marketing. Functions, buying,
selling, transportation, storage and finance. Feedback information, channels of distribution,
wholesale, retail, department store. Introduction to e-commerce (online shopping, online banking,
pretail, marketing to prospective and established customers) and start up business.

Unit IV

Salesmanship: Principle of sales promotion, advertising, ethics of sales, merchandising, literature,
detailing, recruitment, training, performance appraisal of sales force.

Unit V

Market research: Definition, steps and limitations of market research. Market segmentation and
market targeting. Major concepts in demand measurement, estimating current demand. Geo-demographic analysis. Estimating industry sales.

BOOKS RECOMMENDED

1. Beri, Marketing Research .Tata Mc Graw Hill Publishing Company Limited, New Delhi.
2. Chary S.N, Production and Operations Management. Tata Mc Graw Hill Publishing Company
Limited, New Delhi.
3. Datta A.K., Materials Management. Prentice Hall of India Private Limited, New Delhi.
4. Massie L. Joseph, Essentials of Management. Prentice Hall of India Private Limited, New
Delhi.
5. Shreenivasan K.R., An Introduction to Industrial Management. Vikas Publishing House Private
Limited, New Delhi.
6. Daver Rustam S., Salesmanship and Publicity. Vikas Publishing House Private Limited, New
Delhi.
7. Mukopadhyay S., Pharmaceutical Selling, Sterling Publishers.
8. Koontz H, Weihrich H, Essentials of Management. Tata Mc Graw Hill Publishing Company
Limited, New Delhi.
9. G Vidya Sagar, Pharmaceutical Industrial Management, Pharma Med Press, Hyderabad.
10. Micky C Smith, Principles of Pharmaceutical Marketing.CBS Publishers and Distributors, New
Delhi.
11. Chaganti S.R., Pharmaceutical Marketing in India: Concept, strategy and cases. Pharma Med
Press, Hyderabad.

BOP-484

PHARMACEUTICS-XII
(FOOD & NEUTRACEUTICALS)

Unit I

Introduction to food technology.
Food Processing: Freezing, changes in food during refrigerated storage, progressive freezing, Ice
crystal damage, effect of dehydration, microwave heating and drying methods on food products.

Unit II

Food packaging and preservation: Properties of packaging material used for food packaging,
influence of packaging material on changes of food stuffs, brief description of packaging of frozen,
dried products and thermally processed foods.
Brief description of food preservation and its methods.

Unit III

Neutraceuticals: Introduction, classification, categories and rational of use of neutraceuticals.
Brief description to dietary supplements, fortified foods, functional foods and
phytoneutraceuticals.

Unit IV

Development and marketing of neutraceutical products: Supercritical fluid extraction
technology-basics and application for extraction of neutraceuticals from various sources,
Packaging, label claims. Regulatory aspects of neutraceutical products in India.

Unit V

Testing of neutraceuticals and food products: Testing of microbial load, nutritional value, heavy
metals, calorific value and neutraceutical label claim test.
Brief introduction to Agmark, Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) and Food Safety and Standards
Authority of India (FSSAI).

BOP 484P

PHARMACEUTICS-XII (FOOD & NEUTRACEUTICALS) PRACTICAL

1. Preparation of traditional health products e.g. Gulkand, Amla syrup
2. Formulation of health drinks.
3. Preparation and testing of some food products.
4. Testing of food packaging materials.
5. Preparation and testing of some neutraceuticals.

BOOKS RECOMMENDED

1. Potter, N. M., Food Science, CBS Publishers and Distributors, New Delhi.
2. Manay, S. and Shadaksharaswami, M., Foods: Facts and Principles, New Age Publishers,
New Delhi.
3. Frazier W.C. and Westhoff, D.C., Food Microbiology, TMH, New Delhi.
4. Krammer, A. and Twigg B.A., Quality control for food industry, Third edition, AVI, West
port.
5. Ranganna S., Handbook of Analysis and Quality control for Fruit and Vegetables Products,
Tata McGraw Hill, New Delhi.
6. Girdharilal, Preservation of Food and Vegetables, ICAR, New Delhi.
7. Fellows P., Food Processing Technology: Principles and Practice, Ellis Horwood Ltd,
Horwood.
8. Earle R. L., Unit Operations in Food Processing, Pergamon Press, New York.
9. Deore, S. L. Khadbadi S. S., and Baviskar B. A., Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry: A
Comprehensive Approach, PharmaMed Press, Hyderabad.
10. Robert E.C., Wildman, R., Taylor C. Wallace., Handbook of Nutraceuticals and Functional
Foods, Second Edition. CRC Press, Boca Raton.
ELECTIVE

BOP-485(A)

COMPUTATIONAL METHODS IN DRUG DESIGN

Unit I

Introduction to drug design concept, rational approaches of drug design, role of computational
chemistry in drug design. The concept of drug likeness and druggability.
Chemometrics: Introduction to multivariate analysis, linear (PCA, MLR, PLS) and non-linear
methods, validation tools. Introduction to some statistical softwares (such as; SPSS, Graph Pad
Prism etc.).

Unit II

Molecular Modeling: Introduction to the principles of molecular mechanics, quantum mechanics,
molecular dynamics and their applications in drug design.

Unit III

Quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR): Basic concepts of QSAR, molecular
descriptors (2D and 3D parameters), biological parameters, tools and techniques, quantitative
models, validation of models, introduction to 2D and 3D QSAR methodologies.

Unit IV

Virtual screening: Introduction to some molecule databases. Ligand based and structure based
virtual screening. Similarity searching, various methods of similarity searching and their
applications in virtual screening: QSAR modeling, pharmacophore modeling, shape based
screening, fingerprint based screening etc.

Unit V

Structure based drug design: Protein Data Bank, molecular graphics, design of enzyme
inhibitors, receptor based drug design, molecular docking and protein homology modeling.
Introduction to bioinformatics and some drug design softwares (free and commercially available).

BOP-485P (A)

COMPUTATIONAL METHODS IN DRUG DESIGN PROJECT

1. To perform the Hansch and Free-Wilson analysis for the given dataset.
2. To develop and validate a 3D-QSAR model on a given dataset.
3. To develop and validate a 3D-Pharmacophore model on a given dataset.
4. To create a 3D-QSAR based hypothesis for virtual screening on a small molecule dataset.
5. To create a shape-based pharmacophore query on a set of aligned molecules and perform a
virtual screening on a small molecule dataset.
6. To perform the virtual screening on a small molecule dataset using different fingerprint
methods.
7. To perform molecular docking simulation and study various non-covalent interaction in
protein-ligand complex.
8. To perform a homology modeling for a given target using modeler.
9. To perform the structure based virtual screening on a small molecule dataset.
10. To perform the different machine learning methods on a given dataset.
11. To perform the drug-likeness (ADMET) for small molecules.

BOOKS RECOMMENDED

1. Patrick G.L., An Introduction to Medicinal Chemistry, Oxford University Press.
2. Perun T.J. and Propst C.L., Computer-aided Drug Design Methods and Applications, Saurabh
Prakashan Pvt.Ltd., New Delhi.
3. Veerapandian P., Structure-based Drug Design, Sirohi Brothers Pvt. Ltd., Noida.
4. Burger A., A Guide to the Chemical Basis of Drug Design, A Wiley Interscience Publication
(John Wiley & Sons), New York.
5. Wermuth C.G., The Practice of Medicinal Chemistry, Elsevier.
6. Purcell W.P., Bass G.E., Clayton J.M., Strategy of Drug Design: A Guide to Biological
Activity, Pharmamed Press, Hyderabad.
7. Nogrady T., Medicinal Chemistry: A Biochemical Approach, Oxford University Press,
NewYork.
8. Abraham D.J., Burger’s Medicinal Chemistry and Drug Discovery, John Wiley and Sons Inc.,
New York.
9. Ananda Kumar T.D., Elementary Pharmacoinformatics, PharmaMed Press, Hyderabad.

BOP-485 (B)

GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICES

Unit I

Introduction to good manufacturing practices (GMP), good clinical practices (GCP) and good
laboratory practices (GLP). Schedule M.
Standard operating procedure (SOP): Introduction, preparation, validation and revision.

Unit II

Documentation: Protocols, forms and maintenance of records in pharmaceutical industry,
preparation of document for investigational new drug (IND), new drug application (NDA),
abbreviated new drug application (ANDA) and export registration.

Unit III

Introduction to 21-Code of federal regulations. Current good manufacturing practices (c-GMP)
guidelines according to United States Food and Drug Administration (USFDA), difference
between GMP and c-GMP.

Unit IV

Pharmaceutical product recall: Recall classification, strategy for effective recall, FDA requested
recall, firm initiated recall, recall status reports, termination of recall.
Introduction to finished product reprocessing and salvaging.

Unit V

Sampling: Introduction, WHO guidelines, sampling plans and techniques, operating
characteristics curves, maintenance of sampling records of finished product and packaging
material.

BOP-485P (B)

GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICES PROJECT

1. Study the steps to generate SOP.
2. Generation and validation of SOP for Autoclave.
3. Generation and validation of SOP for Dissolution apparatus.
4. Generation and validation of SOP for Centrifuge.
5. Generation and validation of SOP for Balance (electronic and dispensing).
6. Generation and validation of SOP for Cleaning.
7. Generation and validation of SOP for Hot air oven.
8. Generation and validation of SOP for Disintegration apparatus.
9. Generation and validation of SOP for Friability apparatus.
10. Generation and validation of SOP for Incubator.
11. Generation of Master formula record.
12. Generation of Batch formula record.

BOOKS RECOMMENDED

1. Willing, Tuckerman and Hitchings, Good Manufacturing Practices for Pharmaceuticals,
Marcel Dekker, New York.
2. Garfield, Quality Assurance Principles for Analytical Laboratories, Published by Oxford
University Press, USA.
3. Potdar M. A., Current Good Manufacturing Practices for Pharmaceuticals. PharmaMed Press,
Hyderabad.
4. Loftus and Nash, Pharmaceutical Process Validation, Taylor & Francis, New York.
5. Florey, Analytical Profile of Drugs (All volumes), Academic Press, United States.
6. Indian Pharmacopoeia.
7. United States Pharmacopoeia.
8. British Pharmacopoeia.

BOP-485 (C)

CLINICAL PHARMACY

Unit I

Introduction to clinical pharmacy: Definition, development and scope of clinical pharmacy.
Variability in human response to drugs and influence of disease processes: Drug handling and
prescribing in the elderly, infants and children. Drug usage in pregnancy and in breast-feeding
women. Prescribing for patients with renal or hepatic disease. Pharmacogenetics: implications for altered or unusual drug handling. Pharmacoepidemiology.

Unit II

Data analysis and compiling: The patient’s case history, communication skills including patient
medication history interview, patient counseling. Pharmacoeconomics.
Medical writing: Regulatory and educational medical writing.
Literature review and meta-analysis: Process, methods and application, research, report and paper /
thesis writing.
Pharmacovigilance programme of India (PvPI) and Geneva (UPSALA).

Unit III

Daily activities of clinical pharmacists: Drug therapy monitoring (medication chart view, clinical
review), therapeutic drug monitoring, ward round participation, drug utilization evaluation/ review
(DUE)/ (DUR). Quality assurance of clinical pharmacy services.

Unit IV

Research design and conduct of clinical trials: Research support including planning and
execution of clinical trials. Schedule Y, GLP, GCP and ICH Guidelines, trial master file and
ethical requirements. Various phases of clinical trials. Categories of Phase IV studies.
Bioavailability (BA) and bioequivalence (BE) studies and the estimation with the help of plasmaconcentration profile curve. Statistical analysis plan (SAP) and its importance in clinical research.

Unit V

Data collection and biostatistical analysis: Statistical principles underlying clinical trials, data
handling and role of biostatistician.
Sample size calculation, types of variables, Type I error and type II errors, application of
parametric and non-parametric tests, confidence intervals, outliers. Data analysis with the help of bio-statistical software.

BOP-485P (C)

CLINICAL PHARMACY PROJECT

Epidemiological survey and comparison of prescribed therapeutic agents/diagnostic reports on
different diseases such as- Cardiovascular disorders, central nervous system disorders, gastro
intestinal tract disorders, hormonal disorders, pathogenic diseases.

BOOKS RECOMMENDED

1. Scott L.T., Basic skills in interpreting laboratory data, American Society of Health System
Pharmacists Inc., USA.
2. Rowland and Tozer, Clinical Pharmacokinetics, Williams and Wilkins Publication,
Philadelphia, USA.
3. Shargel L., Biopharmaceutics and Applied Pharmacokinetics, Prentice Hall publication, New
Delhi.
4. Parthasarthi G., Nyfort-Hansen K. and Nahata M.C., A Text book of Clinical Pharmacy
Practice-Essential Concepts and Skills, Orient Longman, Chennai.
5. Colledge N.R., Walker B. R. and Stuart H., Ralston Davisson’s Principles and Practice of
Medicine, ELBS/Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh, U.K.
6. Herfindal E.T. and Hirashman J.L., Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics Williams and Wilkins,
Philadelphia, USA.
7. Wagner J.G., Pharmacokinetics for the Pharmaceutical Scientist, Technomic Publishing A G
Basel, Switzerland.
8. Katzung B., Masters S. and Trevor A., Basic and Clinical Pharmacology, McGraw Hill
Professional, U.K.
9. Spilker B. and Schoenfelder J., Data Collection Forms in Clinical Trials, Raven Press, New
York.
10. Roger and Walker; Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics, Churchill, Livingston, London.
11. Stockley I.H., Drug interactions, Pharmaceutical Press, London.
12. Ravishankar K., Kiranmayi G.V.N., Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacotherapeutics, PharmaMed
Press, Hyderabad.

BOP-485 (D)

STANDARDIZATION OF HERBAL DRUGS

Unit I

Commerce and quality control of natural medicinal plants products, organoleptic, microscopical,
physical and chemical evaluation of crude drugs.

Unit II

Standardization of plant material as per WHO guidelines.

Unit III

Methods of extraction and modern techniques for the isolation, purification, separation estimation
and characterization of active plant constituents.

Unit IV

Analysis of official formulations derived from crude drugs, including some ayurvedic preparations.

Unit V

General methods of screening of natural products for following biological activity:
a) Anti-inflammatory b) Hypoglycaemic c) Antibacterial
d) Antifertility e) Psychopharmacological.

BOP-485P (D)

STANDARDIZATION OF HERBAL DRUGS PROJECT

Projects based on :
1. Standardization of Ayurvedic liquid formulations on the basis of the following parametersviscosity, pH, loss on drying, foaming index, chromatography.
2. Standardization of Ayurvedic powdered formulations on the basis of following parametersextractable matter by using various solvents, ash value, stomatal and stomatal index, trichomes
and their types, loss on drying, foaming index, fiber content, chromatography.
3. Stability studies of herbal products as per WHO guidelines.

BOOK RECOMMENDED

1. Trease, G.E., and Evans, W.C., Pharmacognosy, Bailliere Tindall East Baorne, U.K.
2. Tyler V.E., Lynnr B. and Robbers J.E., Pharmacognosy, 8th Edition, Lea & Febiger,
Philadelphia.
3. Harborne J.B., Phytochemical Methods, Chapman & Hall International Edition, London.
4. Pharmacoepial Standards for Ayurvedic Formulations, CCRAS, Delhi.
5. Dhavan B.N. and Srimal R.C., The Use of Pharmacological Techniques for Evaluation of
Natural Products. CDRI, Lucknow.
6. Brain K.R. and Turner T.D, The Practical Evaluation of Phytopharmaceuticals, Wright, Bristol.
7. Peach K. and Tracey MV, Modern Methods of Plant Analysis, Springer, Berlin.
17. Indian Herbal Pharmacopoeia, Vol. I & II, ICMR & RRL, Jammu.
8. Chaudhary. R.D., Herbal Drug Industry, Eastern Publisher, New Delhi.
9. Deore S.L., Khadabadi S.S., Baviskar B.A., Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry: A
Comprehensive Approach, PharmaMed Press, Hyderabad.
10. Nadkarni A.K., Indian Materia Medica, Vol- 1&2, Popular Prakashan (P) Ltd., Bombay.
11. Sukh Dev, A Selection of Prime Ayurvedic Plant Drugs, Anamaya Publisher New Delhi.
12. Indian Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia, Govt. of India.
13. The Wealth of India, Raw Materials (All volumes), Council of Scientific & Industrial
Research, New Delhi.
14. Mukherjee P.K., Quality Control of Herbal Drugs, Business Horizones Pharmaceutical
Publisher, New Delhi.

BOP-485 (E)

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Unit I

Fundamentals of research: Meaning and objective of research, types of research (basic, applied
and patent oriented), defining research problem, research design including various methods,
research process and steps involved.
Literature survey and documentation: Methods of literature survey, use of library, books,
journals, e-journals, thesis, chemical abstracts and patent database, importance of documentation,
documentation techniques, use of computer programs/packages (online resources such as-scientific
search engines and online servers) in literature survey and documentation.

Unit II

Data collection and data analysis: Execution of the research, observation and collection of data,
types of data (primary and secondary), methods of data collection, sample size, sampling
procedure and methods. Data processing and analysis strategies. Research hypothesis
(experimental and non-experimental), hypothesis testing (parametric and non-parametric tests),
types of errors and their control, generalization and interpretation of results. Use of statistical
softwares/ packages in data analysis (SPSS, Graph Pad Prism).

Unit III

Technical writing and reporting of research: Types of research report: Dissertation and thesis,
research paper, review article, short communication, conference presentation, meeting report etc.
Structure and organization of research reports: Title, abstract, key words, introduction,
methodology, results, discussion, conclusion, acknowledgement, references, footnotes, tables and illustrations. Use of reference managing softwares (such as- MENDELEY, ENDNOTE). Impact
factor, rating, indexing and citation of journals.
Detailed study of ‘Instruction to Authors’ of any ACS or ScienceDirect journal, a thorough
understanding of steps involved in submitting articles electronically to any ACS or ScienceDirect
journal (registration, new article submission, tracking process, submitting revised articles).

Unit IV

Research ethics, ethical consideration during animal experimentation including CPCSEA
guidelines, impact of research on environment and society, commercialization of research,
intellectual ownership, plagiarism and use of plagiarism detection softwares such as TURNITIN, 
VIPER etc., responsibility and accountability of the researchers. Academia-Industry interface and
research.
Project cost management: Cost analysis of the project, cost incurred on raw materials, procedure,
instrumentation and biological testing.

Unit V

Funding agencies and research grants: Introduction to various research funding agencies such
as-DST, DBT, AICTE, UGC, CSIR, ICMR, AAYUSH, and DRDO along with their functions in
India. Writing a research project and procurement of research grant.

BOP-485P (E)

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY PROJECT

Projects based on –
1. Literature survey, data collection, formulation and testing of hypothesis, interpretation of
results on a particular research project.
2. Use of statistical packages/ programs (such as SPSS, Graph Pad Prism) in data analysis.
3. Collection, compilation and execution of computational programs for research benefits.
4. Manuscript preparation, communication and follow-up of a research paper/review article.
5. Writing a research project for the procurement of research grant/travel grant from any funding
agency.
6. Preparation and presentation of a research report (Oral and Poster presentations using
Microsoft PowerPoint Package, Microsoft Publisher etc.).

BOOKS RECOMMENDED

1. Kothari C.R., Research Methodology Methods and Techniques, 2nd Edition, Wishwa
Prakashan, New Delhi.
2. Lokesh K., Methodology of Educational research, 3rd revised Edition,Vikash Publishing
House Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi.
3. Kumar R., Research Methodology, 2nd Edition, Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd., New
Delhi.
4. Rao G.N., Research Methodology and Qualitative Methods, B.S. Publications, Hyderabad.
5. Saunders M., Lewis P.and Thornhill A., Research Methods for Business Students,3rdEdition,
Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi.
6. Bolton S. and Bon C., Pharmaceutical Statistics: Practical and Clinical Applications, 4th
edition, Marcel Dekker, New York.
7. Matad V., Anusuya D., Medicomarketing Writing, PharmaMed Press, Hyderabad.
8. Garg, B.L., Karadia, R., Agarwal, F. and Agarwal, U.K., 2002. An introduction to
Research Methodology, RBSA Publishers.

BOP-486P

Report on Industrial/ Research Laboratory Visit

Visit of students to an industrial establishment or an approved research laboratory. The industrial/
research laboratory visit shall include: in case of industry- visit to different sections and
subsections of the industry, an idea about the functioning of the industry, product range of the
industry and various approvals of the industry; in case of research laboratory- visit to different
departments of the laboratory, an idea about the interdisciplinary coordination, contribution of the
laboratory to the society and various approvals of the laboratory. A proper report of the same
shall be submitted by the students, which shall be subsequently evaluated to assess the impact of
the visit.
May be performed at the end of the 7th semester.

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