B Pharma Pharmacy 5th Semester Syllabus
Basic principles of medicinal chemistry: Physicochemical parameters in relation to biological
activity, Stereochemical (Geometrical, Optical and Conformational) aspects of drug design,
Bioisosterism. Drug-receptor interaction (forces), Concept of pro-drugs (Bio-precursor and Carrier
Classification, mode of action, uses, recent advances and structure activity relationship of
the following classes of drugs (Synthetic procedures of individually mentioned drugs only).
Drugs acting at autonomic nervous system Cholinergic drugs: Methacholine, Pilocarpine.
Anticholinergic drugs: Atropine. Anticholinesterases: Neostigmine, Physostigmine.
Adrenergic drugs: Ephedrine, Adrenaline, Salbutamol.
Drugs acting at central nervous system General anaesthetics: Methohexital, Ketamine. Local
anaesthetics: Benzocaine, Lignocaine.
Skeletal muscle relaxants: Succinylcholine, Pancuronium.
Opioid analgesics: Pethidine, Pentazocine.
Antitussives: Cramiphen, Dextromethorphen.
Sedatives and hypnotics: Phenobarbitone, Alprazolam.
Anticonvulsants: Phenytoin, Ethosuximide, Valproic Acid, Vigabatrin.
Drugs for neurodegenerative disorders: Alzheimer’s disease (Tacrine), Parkinson’s disease
Antidepressants: Imipramine, Amitriptyline, Fluoxetine.
Antipsychotic: Chlorpromazine, Haloperidol.
CNS Stimulants and psychedelics: Amphetamine, Caffeine.
(MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY-I) PRACTICAL
Synthesis of selected drugs from the course content involving two or more steps and
characterize/evaluate their Pharmacopoeial standards (if available).
1. Synthesis of Phenytoin.
2. To evaluate the Pharmacopoeial standards of Phenytoin.
3. Synthesis of Benzocaine.
4. To evaluate Pharmacopoeial standards of Benzocaine.
5. Synthesis of Benzamide.
6. To evaluate the synthesized Benzamide.
7. Synthesis of Caffeine.
8. To evaluate the synthesized Caffeine.
9. Synthesis of Phenobarbitone.
10. To evaluate the Pharmacopoeial standards of Phenobarbitone.
11. Synthesis of Thiobarbituric acid derivatives.
12. To evaluate the synthesized Thiobarbituric acid derivatives.
13. Synthesis of Piperazin-2, 5-dione derivatives.
14. To evaluate the synthesized Piperazin-2,5-dione derivatives.
1. Abraham D.J., Burger’s Medicinal Chemistry and Drug Discovery, John Wiley and Sons Inc.,
2. Block J.H. and Beale J.M., Wilson and Gisvold’s Textbook of Organic Medicinal and
Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Lippincott Williams and Wilkins.
3. Lemke T.L., Williams D.A., Roche V.F. and Zito S.W., Foye’s Principles of Medicinal
Chemistry, Lippincott Williams and Wilkins.
4. Vardanyan R.S. and Hruby V.J., Synthesis of Essential Drugs, Elsevier.
5. Singh H. and Kapoor V.K., Medicinal and Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Vallabh Prakashan,
6. Nogrady T., Medicinal Chemistry: A Biochemical Approach, Oxford University Press,
7. Silverman R.B., The Organic Chemistry of Drug Design and Drug Action, Elsevier.
8. Korolkovas A., Essentials of Medicinal Chemistry, John Wiley and Sons Inc., New York.
9. Larsen P.K., Liljefors T. and Madsen U. Textbook of Drug Design and Discovery, Taylor
and Francis Inc.
10. Mann F.G. and Saunders B.C., Practical Organic Chemistry, Orient Longman Limited.
11. Furniss B.S., Hannaford A.J., Smith P.W.G. and Tatchell A. R., Vogel’s Textbook of
Practical Organic Chemistry, Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd. (Pearson Education Ltd.).
Preformulation studies: Significance of physical form, particle size, shape, density, wetting,
dielectric constant, solubility, dissolution and stability on formulation development. Brief
introduction to ICH guidelines for stability.
Biphasic liquid dosage forms (suspensions and emulsions): Vehicles, additives, stabilizers,
preservatives, suspending agents, emulsifying agents, colors and flavors; manufacturing,
packaging and evaluation. Brief introduction to multiple emulsion, microemulsion, nanoemulsion
Semisolid dosage forms: Classification, skin permeation enhancement methods, semisolid bases
and their selection, general formulation of semisolids and clear gel manufacturing procedures,
packaging and evaluation. Introduction to in situ gels and hydrogels.
Suppositories: Bases, manufacturing procedures, packaging and evaluation. Introduction to liquid
Ophthalmic, nasal, otic and parenteral products: Significance and formulation details,
equipment for large scale manufacturing, in-vitro methods of evaluation, containers and closures,
prefilling treatments. Ophthalmic, nasal, otic and parenteral preparations (Sterile water for
injection, water for injection, suspension and sterile powder).
Pharmaceutical aerosols: Definition, propellants, general formulation, manufacturing,
packaging, evaluation and pharmaceutical applications.
Veterinary dosage forms: Animal dosage forms like solid, liquid oral, parenteral, pastes, pellets
and implants; regulatory requirements for approval of animal drugs.
Formulation and evaluation of the following dosage forms containing drugs mentioned in IP.
c. Ear drops.
d. Eye drops.
e. Nasal drops.
f. Topical gels.
2. Formulation and evaluation of disodium EDTA injection IP (vials).
3. Formulation and evaluation of water for infection IP (ampoules).
4. To perform tip or bead and pull sealing of ampoules.
1. Remington’s Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vol. I & Vol. II, Mack Publishing Co., U.S.A.
2. Cooper J.W. and Gunn G., Tutorial Pharmacy, Petman Books Ltd., London.
3. Lachman L., Lieberman H.A, Kanig J.L., Theory and Practice of Industrial Pharmacy, Lea &
Febiger, Philadelphia, U.S.A.
4. Khar R. K., Vyas S.P., Ahmad F., Jain G. K., The Theory and Practice of Industrial
Edition, CBS Publishers and Distributors.
5. Ansel, H.C., Introduction to Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms, Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia,
6. Juliano, R.L., Drug Delivery Systems, Oxford University Press, Oxford.
7. Brittain, H. G., Polymorphism in Pharmaceuticals Solids.
8. Turco S. J., Sterile Dosage Form-Their Preparation and Clinical Application, LWW.
9. Hardee G.E., Baggot J.D., Development and Formulation of Veterinary Dosage Forms, 2
Edition, CRC Press.
PHARMACEUTICS-VII (PHARMACEUTICAL & FOOD MICROBIOLOGY)
A. Introduction to scope of food and pharmaceutical microbiology. B. Optical microscopy and
C. Identification of microbes: Structure of bacterial cell, stains and types of staining techniques.
D. Classification of bacteria based on temperature, pH and oxygen requirements.
A. Nutrition, cultivation and isolation of bacteria and viruses.
B. Factory and hospital hygiene- control of microbial contamination during manufacture, concept
and design of clean and aseptic areas, nosocomial infections and their control.
Control of microbes
A. Disinfection, factors influencing disinfectants, dynamics of disinfection, disinfectants and
antiseptics and their evaluation.
B. Methods of sterilization, validation of sterilization methods and equipments.
A. Microbial flora of fresh food: egg, meat, fruits and vegetables.
B. Microbial spoilage of foods.
C. Elementary techniques of industrial food preservation-radiation, low and high temperatures.
D. Probiotics in food: Benefits of probiotic foods, brief introduction to probiotic milk, yogurt and
A. Sterility testing as per I.P.
B. Preservative efficacy.
C. Microbial assays of antibiotics: Oxytetracycline and Erythromycin.
D. Microbial assays of Vitamin B12.
PHARMACEUTICS-VII (PHARMACEUTICAL & FOOD MICROBIOLOGY)PRACTICAL
Study of sterilization methods and equipments
• Dry heat
• Moist heat.
2. Preparation of various types of culture media.
3. Isolation of bacteria.
4. Sub-culturing of common bacteria, fungi and yeast.
5. Identification and staining of bacteria
• Simple staining
• Gram staining
• Acid fast staining
• Hanging drop preparation.
6. Microbial examination of foods.
7. Evaluation of disinfectants and antiseptics.
8. Phenol coefficient test, minimum inhibitory concentration.
9. Test for sterility of pharmaceutical products as per IP.
10. Microbial assay of antibiotics as per IP.
1. Aneja K.R., Experiments in Microbiology, Plant Pathology, Tissue Culture & Mushroom
Cultivation, Vishwa Prakashan.
2. Gunasekaran P., Lab Mannual of Microbiology, New Age Publishers.
3. Davis, Dulbetco, Eisen Microbiology.
4. Stanier R.Y., Ingraham, J.L., Wheelis M.L., Painter P.R. General Microbiology, Macmillan
5. Hugo and Russell, Pharmaceutical Microbiology, Black Well Scientific Publication, Oxford.
6. Prescott L.M., Harley J.P. and Klien D.A., Microbiology, McGraw Hill.
7. Sykes G., Disinfection and Sterilization: Theory and Practice, General and Industrial
Chemistry Seris, Spon.
8. Pelczar and Reid, Microbiology, Tata McGraw Hill, Delhi.
9. Bean H. S., Beckett A. H. and Carless J. E., Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences. Vol. 1.
Academic Press Inc. Elsevier.
10. Virella G. Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, William & Wilkins.
11. Ananthanarayan R., Paniker C.K.J., Textbook of Microbiology, Orient Longman.
12. Fundamental Food Microbiology, Bibek Ray, Arun Bhunia, CRC Press.
PHARMACOLOGY-I (PHARMACOLOGY & TOXICOLOGY)
A. General Pharmacology: Introduction to pharmacology, routes of drug administration,
combined effect of drugs, factors modifying drug action. Discovery and development of new
drugs. Bioassay of drugs.
B. Basic Concepts of Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics: Absorption, distribution,
metabolism and excretion. Principles of drug action, mechanisms of drug action, receptors.
Pharmacology of ANS: Drug acting on autonomic nervous system:
A. Cholinergic system: Parasympathomimetic (cholinergic) drugs, parasympatholytic (anticholinergic) drugs, drug acting on autonomic ganglia (stimulants and blocking agents).
B. Adrenergic system: Sympathomimetic (adrenergic) drugs, sympatholytic (anti-adrenergic)
Drugs acting on PNS: Local anesthetics, skeletal muscle relaxants (peripherally and centrally
acting muscle relaxants).
Pharmacology of CNS: General anaesthetics, alcohols and disulfiram, sedative and hypnotics.
antiepileptic drugs, drugs for neurodegenerative diseases, opioid analgesics and their antagonists.
Psychopharmacological Agents: Anti anxiety agents, antipsychotics, antidepressants.
Principles of Toxicology: Definition of poison, general principles for treatment of poisoning with
particular reference to barbiturates, opioids, organophosphorous and atropine poisoning. Heavy
(PHARMACOLOGY & TOXICOLOGY) PRACTICAL
1. Use of computer simulated (CDs or video cassettes) for pharmacology practical where
2. Preparation of different solutions for experiments. Drug dilutions, use of molar and w/v
solutions in experimental pharmacology. Common laboratory animals and anesthetics used in
animal studies. Commonly used instruments in experimental pharmacology. Some common
and standard techniques.
3. Study of different routes of administration of drugs in mice/rats.
4. To study the effect of hepatic microsomal enzyme inhibitors and induction on the
pentobarbitone sleeping time in mice, using software alternative to use of animals.
1. Katzung B.G., Basic and Clinical Pharmacology, Prentice Hall, International
2. Barar F.S.K., Text Book of Pharmacology, Interprint, New Delhi.
3. Rang M.P., Dale, M.M., Riter J.M., Pharmacology, Churchill Livingstone.
4. Tripathi K.D., Essentials of Medical Pharmacology, Jay Pee Publishers, New Delhi.
5. Satoskar and Bhandarkar, Pharmacology and Pharmacotherapeutics, Popular Prakashan Pvt.
6. Kulkarni S.K., Hand Book of Experimental Pharmacology, Vallabh Prakashan, Delhi.
7. Bothra S.B.; Essentials of Experimental Pharmacology, Vol. 1, General Concepts, PharmaMed
8. Ghosh, M.N.; Fundamentals of Experimental Pharmacology, Scientific Book Agency,
9. Grover J.K., Experiments in Pharmacy and Pharmacology, CBS Publishers, New Delhi.
10. Goodman & Gilman’s, The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, Ed; Brunton L., Lazo
J., Parker K., McGraw Hill Professional.
11. Laurence, D.R. and Bannet P.N., Clinical Pharmacology, Churchill Livingstone.
12. Craig C.R. and Stitzel, R.R., Modern Pharmacology, 4
Edition, Little Brown and Co.
13. Sheffield Bioscience Programs, U.K., ISBN, 1-874758-02-6.
ENVIRONMENT & ECOLOGY
Environment studies: Definition, scope and importance. Natural resources-renewable and non
renewable, utilization, exploitation and associated problems of forests. Water resources, mineral
resources, food resources, energy resources, land resources, equitable use of resources for
sustainable life style, role of an individual in conservation.
Components of ecosystem. Green house gases and green house effect. Biodiversity and its
conservation with special reference to India.
Environmental pollution: Introduction, causes and control measures of air, water, soil, marine,
noise, thermal, nuclear pollutions.
Law related to environmental protection: Air (Prevention and Control of pollution) Act-1987,
Water prevention and Control of Pollution Act-1974.
Environmental Protection Act -1986, Noise Pollution Act, Hazardous Wastes Act, Hazardous
Chemicals Act, Hazardous Microorganisms Act, Biomedical Waste Act, Provisions applicable to
Drugs and Cosmetic Act.
1. Manoharachary C., Reddy P.J., Principles of Environmental Studies, BS Publications,
2. Trivedy R.K., Handbook of Environmental Laws, Acts, Guidelines, Compliances and
Standards, Vol. I and II, Pharma Book Syndicate, Hyderabad.
3. Relevant Acts and Rules Published by Government of India with latest amendments.
4. Reddy M.A., Text book of Environmental Science and Technology, BS Publications,
5. Sinha S., Shukla M., Siddiqui A., Agrawal N. A., Text book of Environment and Ecology for
Pharmacy Students, AITBS Publishers, Delhi, India.
Training of students at a hospital establishment for a minimum duration of 45 days. The hospital
training shall include: First aid (wound dressing, artificial respiration etc.), different routes of
injection, study of patient observation charts, prescriptions and dispensing, simple diagnostic
May be performed at the end of the 4th