B Pharma Pharmacy 4th Semester Syllabus

B Pharma Pharmacy 4th Semester Syllabus




45 Hours
Scope: This subject imparts knowledge on stereo-chemical aspects of organic compounds
and organic reactions, important named reactions, chemistry of important hetero cyclic
compounds. It also emphasizes on medicinal and other uses of organic compounds.
Objectives: At the end of the course, the student shall be able to
1. Understand the methods of preparation and properties of organic compounds.
2. Explain the stereo chemical aspects of organic compounds and stereo chemical
3. Know the medicinal uses and other applications of organic compounds.
Course Content:
Note: To emphasize on definition, types, mechanisms, examples, uses/applications

Unit I 10 Hours

Stereo isomerism
Optical isomerism– Optical activity, enantiomerism, diastereoisomerism, meso compounds.
Elements of symmetry, chiral and achiral molecules.
DL system of nomenclature of optical isomers, sequence rules, RS system of
nomenclature of optical isomers.
Reactions of chiral molecules.
Racemic modification and resolution of racemic mixture.
Asymmetric synthesis: partial and absolute.

Unit II 10 Hours

Geometrical isomerism- Nomenclature of geometrical isomers (Cis-Trans, E-Z, Syn-Anti
systems). Methods of determination of configuration of geometrical isomers.
Conformational isomerism in Ethane, n-Butane and Cyclohexane.
Stereo isomerism in biphenyl compounds (Atropisomerism) and conditions for optical
Stereospecific and stereoselective reactions

Unit III 10 Hours

Heterocyclic compounds:
Nomenclature and classification
Synthesis, reactions and medicinal uses of following compounds/derivatives
Pyrrole, Furan, and Thiophene
Relative aromaticity and reactivity of Pyrrole, Furan and Thiophene.

Unit IV 8 Hours

Synthesis, reactions and medicinal uses of following compounds/derivatives.
Pyrazole, Imidazole, Oxazole and Thiazole.
Pyridine, Quinoline, Isoquinoline, Acridine and Indole. Basicity of Pyridine.
Synthesis and medicinal uses of Pyrimidine, Purine, Azepines and their derivatives.

Unit V 07 Hours

Reactions of synthetic importance
Metal hydride reduction (NaBH4 and LiAlH4), Clemmensen reduction, Birch
reduction, Wolff Kishner reduction.
Oppenauer-oxidation and Dakin reaction.
Beckmanns rearrangement and Schmidt rearrangement.
Claisen-Schmidt condensation.

Recommended Books (Latest Editions)

1. Organic Chemistry- by Morrison R.T. and Boyd R.N., Bhattacharjee S.K., 7
Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd. (Pearson Education).
2. Organic Chemistry- by Finar I.L., 6
th Edition, Vol.-I, Dorling Kindersley (India)
Pvt. Ltd (Pearson Education).
3. An Introduction to the Chemistry of Heterocyclic Compounds- by Acheson R.M.,,
rd Edition, Wiley (India) Pvt. Ltd.
4. Heterocyclic Chemistry- by Gilchrist T.L., Pearson Education (Singapore) Ltd.
5. Heterocyclic Chemistry- by Bansal R.K., New Age International Publishers.
6. A Textbook of Organic Chemistry- by Jain M.K. and Sharma S.C., Shoban Lal
and Co. Educational Publishers.
7. Advanced General Organic Chemistry- A Modern Approach- by Ghosh S. K., Part-I
& II, 3
rd Edition, New Central Book Agency (P) Ltd.
 8. Organic Chemistry- by Bruice P.Y., 3
rd Edition, Dorling Kindersley (India)
Pvt. Ltd. (Pearson Education).
9. The Chemistry of Organic Medicinal Products- by Jenkins G.L., Hartung W.H.,
Hamlin K.E. and Data J.B., 4
Edition, Pharma Med Press, Hyderabad.



45 Hours
Scope: This subject is designed to impart fundamental knowledge on the structure,
chemistry and therapeutic value of drugs. The subject emphasizes on structure activity
relationships of drugs, importance of physicochemical properties and metabolism of
drugs. The syllabus also emphasizes on chemical synthesis of important drugs under each
Objectives: Upon completion of the course the student shall be able to
1. Understand the chemistry of drugs with respect to their pharmacological activity
2. Understand the drug metabolic pathways, adverse effect and therapeutic value of
3. Know the Structural ActivityRelationship (SAR) of different class of drugs
4. Write the chemical synthesis of some drugs
Course Content:
Study of the development of the following classes of drugs, Classification, mechanism of
action, uses of drugs mentioned in the course, Structure activity relationship of selective
class of drugs as specified in the course and synthesis of drugs superscripted (*)

Unit I 10 Hours

Introduction to Medicinal Chemistry
History and development of medicinal chemistry
Physicochemical properties in relation to biological action
Ionization, Solubility, Partition Coefficient, Hydrogen bonding, Protein
binding, Chelation, Bioisosterism, Optical and Geometrical isomerism.
Drug metabolism
Drug metabolism principles- Phase I and Phase II.

Factors affecting drug metabolism including stereo chemical aspects.
Unit II 10 Hours

Drugs acting on Autonomic Nervous System
Adrenergic Neurotransmitters:
Biosynthesis and catabolism of catecholamine.
Adrenergic receptors (Alpha & Beta) and their distribution.
Sympathomimetic agents: SAR of sympathomimetic agents
Direct acting: Nor-epinephrine, Epinephrine, Phenylephrine*, Dopamine,
Methyldopa, Clonidine, Dobutamine, Isoproterenol, Terbutaline,
Salbutamol*, Bitolterol, Naphazoline, Oxymetazoline and Xylometazoline.
 Indirect acting agents: Hydroxyamphetamine, Pseudoephedrine,
 Agents with mixed mechanism: Ephedrine, Metaraminol.
Adrenergic Antagonists:
Alpha adrenergic blockers: Tolazoline*, Phentolamine, Phenoxybenzamine,
Prazosin, Dihydroergotamine, Methysergide.
Beta adrenergic blockers: SAR of beta blockers, Propranolol*, Metibranolol,
Atenolol, Betazolol, Bisoprolol, Esmolol, Metoprolol, Labetolol, Carvedilol.

Unit III 10 Hours

Cholinergic neurotransmitters:
Biosynthesis and catabolism of acetylcholine.
Cholinergic receptors (Muscarinic & Nicotinic) and their distribution.
Parasympathomimetic agents: SAR of Parasympathomimetic agents
Direct acting agents: Acetylcholine, Carbachol*, Bethanechol, Methacholine,
Indirect acting/ Cholinesterase inhibitors (Reversible & Irreversible): Physostigmine,
Neostigmine*, Pyridostigmine, Edrophonium chloride, Tacrine hydrochloride,
Ambenonium chloride, Isofluorphate, Echothiophate iodide, Parathione, Malathion.
Cholinesterase reactivator: Pralidoxime chloride.
Cholinergic Blocking agents: SAR of cholinolytic agents
Solanaceous alkaloids and analogues: Atropine sulphate, Hyoscyamine sulphate,
Scopolamine hydrobromide, Homatropine hydrobromide, Ipratropium bromide*.
Synthetic cholinergic blocking agents: Tropicamide, Cyclopentolate hydrochloride,
Clidinium bromide, Dicyclomine hydrochloride*, Glycopyrrolate, Methantheline
bromide, Propantheline bromide, Benztropine mesylate, Orphenadrine citrate, Biperidine
hydrochloride, Procyclidine hydrochloride*, Tridihexethyl chloride, Isopropamide iodide,
Ethopropazine hydrochloride.

Unit IV 08 Hours

Drugs acting on Central Nervous System
A. Sedatives and Hypnotics:
Benzodiazepines: SAR of Benzodiazepines, Chlordiazepoxide, Diazepam*, Oxazepam,
Chlorazepate, Lorazepam, Alprazolam, Zolpidem
Barbiturtes: SAR of barbiturates, Barbital*, Phenobarbital, Mephobarbital, Amobarbital,
Butabarbital, Pentobarbital, Secobarbital.
Miscelleneous: Amides & imides: Glutethmide.
Alcohol & their carbamate derivatives: Meprobomate, Ethchlorvynol.
Aldehyde & their derivatives: Triclofos sodium, Paraldehyde.
B. Antipsychotics
Phenothiazeines: SAR of Phenothiazeines- Promazine hydrochloride, Chlorpromazine
hydrochloride*, Triflupromazine, Thioridazine hydrochloride, Piperacetazine hydrochloride,
Prochlorperazine maleate, Trifluoperazine hydrochloride.
Ring Analogues of Phenothiazeines: Chlorprothixene, Thiothixene,
Loxapine succinate, Clozapine.
Fluro buterophenones: Haloperidol, Droperidol, Risperidone.
Beta amino ketones: Molindone hydrochloride.
Benzamides: Sulpieride.
C. Anticonvulsants: SAR of Anticonvulsants, mechanism of anticonvulsant action.
Barbiturates: Phenobarbitone, Methabarbital.
Hydantoins: Phenytoin*, Mephenytoin, Ethotoin.
Oxazolidine diones: Trimethadione, Paramethadione.
Succinimides: Phensuximide, Methsuximide, Ethosuximide*
Urea and monoacylureas: Phenacemide, Carbamazepine*
Benzodiazepines: Clonazepam.
Miscellaneous: Primidone, Valproic acid , Gabapentin, Felbamate

Unit V 07 Hours

Drugs acting on Central Nervous System
General anesthetics:
Inhalation anesthetics: Halothane*, Methoxyflurane, Enflurane, Sevoflurane, Isoflurane,
Ultra short acting barbitutrates: Methohexital sodium*, Thiamylal sodium,
Thiopental sodium.
Dissociative anesthetics: Ketamine hydrochloride.*
Narcotic and non-narcotic analgesics
Morphine and related drugs: SAR of Morphine analogues, Morphine sulphate, Codeine,
Meperidine hydrochloride, Anilerdine hydrochloride, Diphenoxylate hydrochloride,
Loperamide hydrochloride, Fentanyl citrate*, Methadone hydrochloride*, Propoxyphene
hydrochloride, Pentazocine, Levorphanol tartarate.
Narcotic antagonists: Nalorphine hydrochloride, Levallorphan tartarate, Naloxone
Anti-inflammatory agents: Sodium salicylate, Aspirin, Mefenamic acid*,
Meclofenamate, Indomethacin, Sulindac, Tolmetin, Zomepriac, Diclofenac, Ketorolac,
Ibuprofen*, Naproxen, Piroxicam, Phenacetin, Acetaminophen, Antipyrine,



4 Hours/Week
 I Preparation of drugs/ intermediates
1 1,3-pyrazole
2 1,3-oxazole
3 Benzimidazole
4 Benztriazole
5 2,3- diphenyl quinoxaline
6 Benzocaine
7 Phenytoin
8 Phenothiazine
9 Barbiturate
II Assay of drugs
1 Chlorpromazine
2 Phenobarbitone
3 Atropine
4 Ibuprofen
5 Aspirin
6 Furosemide
III Determination of Partition coefficient for any two drugs

Recommended Books (Latest Editions)

1. Wilson and Giswold’s Organic Medicinal and Pharmaceutical Chemistry by Block
J.H. and Beale J.M., Lippincott Williams and Wilkins.
2. Foye’s Principles of Medicinal Chemistry by Lemke T.L., Williams D.A., Roche
V.F. and Zito S.W., Lippincott Williams and Wilkins.
3. Burger’s Medicinal Chemistry and Drug Discovery by Abraham D.J., Vol I to
IV.John Wiley and Sons Inc., New York.
4. Synthesis of Essential Drugs by Vardanyan R.S. and Hruby V.J., Elsevier.
 5. Medicinal and Pharmaceutical Chemistry by Singh H. and Kapoor V.K.,
Vallabh Prakashan, Delhi.
 6. Medicinal Chemistry: A Biochemical Approach by Nogrady T., Oxford
University Press, NewYork.
 7. The Organic Chemistry of Drug Design and Drug Action by Silverman R.B.,
 8. Essentials of Medicinal Chemistry by Korolkovas A., John Wiley and Sons Inc.,
New York.
 9. Textbook of Drug Design and Discovery by Larsen P.K., Liljefors T. and
Madsen U., Taylor and Francis Inc.
 10. Practical Organic Chemistry by Mann F.G. and Saunders B.C., Orient Longman
 11. Vogel’s Textbook of Practical Organic Chemistry by Furniss B.S., Hannaford
A.J., Smith P.W.G. and Tatchell A. R., Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd.
(Pearson Education Ltd.).
12. The Organic Chemistry of Drug Synthesis by Lednicer, Vol. 1-5.
13. Indian Pharmacopoeia.
14. The Chemistry of Organic Medicinal Products by Jenkins G.L., Hartung W.H.,
Hamlin K.E. and Data J.B., PharmaMed Press Hyderabad.

BP 403 T.


Scope: The course deals with the various physical and physicochemical properties, and
principles involved in dosage forms/formulations. Theory and practical components of
the subject help the student to get a better insight into various areas of formulation
research and development, and stability studies of pharmaceutical dosage forms.
Objectives: Upon the completion of the course student shall be able to
1. Understand various physicochemical properties of drug molecules in the
designing the dosage forms
2. Know the principles of chemical kinetics & to use them for stability testing nad
determination of expiry date of formulations
3. Demonstrate use of physicochemical properties in the formulation
development and evaluation of dosage forms.
Course Content:

Unit I 07 Hours

Colloidal dispersions: Classification of dispersed systems & their general
characteristics, size & shapes of colloidal particles, classification of colloids &
comparative account of their general properties. Optical, kinetic & electrical properties.
Effect of electrolytes, coacervation, peptization& protective action.

Unit II 10 Hours

Rheology: Newtonian systems, law of flow, kinematic viscosity, effect of temperature,
non-Newtonian systems, pseudoplastic, dilatant, plastic, thixotropy, thixotropy in
formulation, determination of viscosity, capillary, falling Sphere, rotational viscometers
Deformation of solids: Plastic and elastic deformation, Heckel equation, Stress, Strain,
Elastic Modulus

Unit III 10 Hours

Coarse dispersion: Suspension, interfacial properties of suspended particles, settling in
suspensions, formulation of flocculated and deflocculated suspensions. Emulsions and
theories of emulsification, microemulsion and multiple emulsions; Stability of emulsions,
preservation of emulsions, rheological properties of emulsions and emulsion
formulation by HLB method.

Unit IV 10Hours

Micromeretics: Particle size and distribution, mean particle size, number and weight
distribution, particle number, methods for determining particle size by different
methods, counting and separation method, particle shape, specific surface, methods for
determining surface area, permeability, adsorption, derived properties of powders,
porosity, packing arrangement, densities, bulkiness & flow properties.

Unit V 10 Hours

Drug stability: Reaction kinetics: zero, pseudo-zero, first & second order, units of basic
rate constants, determination of reaction order. Physical and chemical factors influencing
the chemical degradation of pharmaceutical product: temperature, solvent, ionic strength,
dielectric constant, specific & general acid base catalysis, Simple numerical problems.
Stabilization of medicinal agents against common reactions like hydrolysis & oxidation.
Accelerated stability testing in expiration dating of pharmaceutical dosage forms.
Photolytic degradation and its prevention

BP 407P.


3 Hrs/week
1. Determination of particle size, particle size distribution using sieving method
2. Determination of particle size, particle size distribution using Microscopic method
3. Determination of bulk density, true density and porosity
4. Determine the angle of repose and influence of lubricant on angle of repose
5. Determination of viscosity of liquid using Ostwald’s viscometer
6. Determination sedimentation volume with effect of different suspending agent
7. Determination sedimentation volume with effect of different concentration of
single suspending agent
8. Determination of viscosity of semisolid by using Brookfield viscometer
9. Determination of reaction rate constant first order.
10. Determination of reaction rate constant second order
11. Accelerated stability studies

Recommended Books: (Latest Editions)

1. Physical Pharmacy by Alfred Martin, Sixth edition.
2. Experimental pharmaceutics byEugene, Parott.
3. Tutorial pharmacy by Cooper and Gunn.
4. Stocklosam J. Pharmaceutical calculations, Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia.
5. Liberman H.A, Lachman C., Pharmaceutical Dosage forms, Tablets, Volume-1 to
3, Marcel Dekkar Inc.
6. Liberman H.A, Lachman C, Pharmaceutical dosage forms. Disperse systems, volume
 1,2, 3. Marcel Dekkar Inc.
7. Physical Pharmaceutics by RamasamyC, and Manavalan R.

BP 404 T.


45 Hrs
Scope: The main purpose of the subject is to understand what drugs do to the living
organisms and how their effects can be applied to therapeutics. The subject covers the
information about the drugs like, mechanism of action, physiological and biochemical
effects (pharmacodynamics) as well as absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion
(pharmacokinetics) along with the adverse effects, clinical uses, interactions, doses,
contraindications and routes of administration of different classes of drugs.
Objectives: Upon completion of this course the student should be able to
1. Understand the pharmacological actions of different categories of drugs
2. Explain the mechanism of drug action at organ system/sub cellular/
macromolecular levels.
3. Apply the basic pharmacological knowledge in the prevention and treatment of
various diseases.
4. Observe the effect of drugs on animals by simulated experiments
5. Appreciate correlation of pharmacology with other bio medical sciences
Course Content:

Unit I 08 hours

1. General Pharmacology
a. Introduction to Pharmacology- Definition, historical landmarks and scope of
pharmacology, nature and source of drugs, essential drugs concept and routes of
drug administration, Agonists, antagonists( competitive and non competitive), spare
receptors, addiction, tolerance, dependence, tachyphylaxis, idiosyncrasy, allergy.
b. Pharmacokinetics- Membrane transport, absorption, distribution, metabolism and
excretion of drugs .Enzyme induction, enzyme inhibition, kinetics of elimination

Unit II 12 Hours

General Pharmacology
a. Pharmacodynamics- Principles and mechanisms of drug action. Receptor theories
and classification of receptors, regulation of receptors. drug receptors interactions
signal transduction mechanisms, G-protein–coupled receptors, ion channel receptor,
transmembrane enzyme linked receptors, transmembrane JAK-STAT binding
receptor and receptors that regulate transcription factors, dose response
relationship, therapeutic index, combined effects of drugs and factors modifying
drug action.
b. Adverse drug reactions.
c. Drug interactions (pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic)
d. Drug discovery and clinical evaluation of new drugs -Drug discovery phase,
preclinical evaluation phase, clinical trial phase, phases of clinical trials and

Unit III 10 Hours

2. Pharmacology of drugs acting on peripheral nervous system
a. Organization and function of ANS.
b.Neurohumoral transmission,co-transmission and classification of neurotransmitters.
c. Parasympathomimetics, Parasympatholytics, Sympathomimetics, sympatholytics.
d. Neuromuscular blocking agents and skeletal muscle relaxants (peripheral).
e. Local anesthetic agents.
f. Drugs used in myasthenia gravis and glaucoma

Unit IV 08 Hours

3. Pharmacology of drugs acting on central nervous system
 a. Neurohumoral transmission in the C.N.S. special emphasis on importance of
various neurotransmitters like with GABA, Glutamate, Glycine, serotonin,
 b. General anesthetics and pre-anesthetics.
 c. Sedatives, hypnotics and centrally acting muscle relaxants.
 d. Anti-epileptics.
 e. Alcohols and disulfiram.

Unit V 07 Hours

3. Pharmacology of drugs acting on central nervous system
 a. Psychopharmacological agents: Antipsychotics, antidepressants, anti-anxiety agents,
antimanics and hallucinogens.
 b. Drugs used in Parkinsons disease and Alzheimer’s disease.
 c. CNS stimulants and nootropics.
 d. Opioid analgesics and antagonists
 e. Drug addiction, drug abuse, tolerance and dependence.

BP 408 P


 1. Introduction to experimental pharmacology.
2. Commonly used instruments in experimental pharmacology.
3. Study of common laboratory animals.
4. Maintenance of laboratory animals as per CPCSEA guidelines.
5. Common laboratory techniques. Blood withdrawal, serum and plasma separation,
anesthetics and euthanasia used for animal studies.
6. Study of different routes of drugs administration in mice/rats.
7. Study of effect of hepatic microsomal enzyme inducers on the phenobarbitone sleeping
time in mice.
8. Effect of drugs on ciliary motility of frog oesophagus
9. Effect of drugs on rabbit eye.
10. Effects of skeletal muscle relaxants using rota-rod apparatus.
11. Effect of drugs on locomotor activity using actophotometer.
12. Anticonvulsant effect of drugs by MES and PTZ method.
13. Study of stereotype and anti-catatonic activity of drugs on rats/mice.
14. Study of anxiolytic activity of drugs using rats/mice.
15. Study of local anesthetics by different methods
Note: All laboratory techniques and animal experiments are demonstrated by simulated
experiments by softwares and videos

Recommended Books (Latest Editions)

1. Rang H. P., Dale M. M., Ritter J. M., Flower R. J., Rang and Dale’s Pharmacology,
Churchil Livingstone Elsevier
2. Katzung B. G., Masters S. B., Trevor A. J., Basic and clinical pharmacology, Tata Mc
3. Goodman and Gilman’s, The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics.
4. Marry Anne K. K., Lloyd Yee Y., Brian K. A., Robbin L.C., Joseph G. B., Wayne A.
K., BradleyR.W., Applied Therapeutics, The Clinical use of Drugs, The Point Lippincott
Williams & Wilkins.
5. Mycek M.J, Gelnet S.B and Perper M.M. Lippincott’s Illustrated ReviewsPharmacology.
6. K.D.Tripathi. Essentials of Medical Pharmacology, JAYPEE Brothers Medical
Publishers (P) Ltd, New Delhi.
7. Sharma H. L., Sharma K. K., Principles of Pharmacology, Paras medical publisher
8. Modern Pharmacologywith clinical Applications, byCharles R.Craig& Robert.
9. Ghosh MN. Fundamentals of Experimental Pharmacology. Hilton & Company,
10. Kulkarni SK. Handbook of experimental pharmacology. VallabhPrakashan.

BP 405 T.


45 Hours
Scope: The subject involves the fundamentals of Pharmacognosy like scope, classification of
crude drugs, their identification and evaluation, phytochemicals present in them and their
medicinal properties.
Objectives: Upon completion of the course, the student shall be able
1. To know the techniques in the cultivation and production of crude drugs.
2. To know the crude drugs, their uses and chemical nature.
3. Know the evaluation techniques for the herbal drugs.
4. To carry out the microscopic and morphological evaluation of crude drugs.
Course Content:

Unit I 10 Hours

Introduction to Pharmacognosy:
(a) Definition, history, scope and development of Pharmacognosy
(b) Sources of Drugs – Plants, Animals, Marine & Tissue culture
(c) Organized drugs, unorganized drugs (dried latex, dried juices, dried extracts, gums
and mucilages, oleoresins and oleo- gum -resins).
Classification of drugs:
Alphabetical, morphological, taxonomical, chemical, pharmacological, chemo and
sero taxonomical classification of drugs
Quality control of Drugs of Natural Origin:
Adulteration of drugs of natural origin. Evaluation by organoleptic, microscopic,
chemical and biological methods and properties.
Quantitative microscopy of crude drugs including lycopodium spore method,
leafconstants, camera lucida and diagrams of microscopic objects to scale with camera

Unit II 10 Hours

Cultivation, Collection, Processing and storage of drugs of natural origin: Cultivation
and Collection of drugs of natural origin
Factors influencing cultivation of medicinal
plants. Plant hormones and their applications.
Polyploidy, mutation and hybridization with reference to medicinal plants.
Conservation of medicinal plants.

Unit III 07 Hours

Plant tissue culture:
Historical development of plant tissue culture, types of cultures, Nutritional
requirements, growth and their maintenance.
Applications of plant tissue culture in pharmacognosy.
Edible vaccines.

 Unit IV 10 Hours

Pharmacognosy in various systems of medicine:
Role of Pharmacognosy in allopathy and traditional systems of medicine namely, Ayurveda,
Unani, Siddha, Homeopathy and Chinese systems of medicine.
Introduction to secondary metabolites:
Definition, classification, properties and test for identification of Alkaloids, Glycosides,
Flavonoids, Tannins, Volatile oil and Resins.

Unit V 08 Hours

Study of biological source, chemical nature and uses of drugs of natural origin containing
following drugs.
Plant Products:
Fibers – Cotton, Jute, Hemp.
Hallucinogens, Teratogens, Natural allergens.
Primary metabolites:
General introduction, detailed study with respect to chemistry, sources, preparation,
evaluation, preservation, storage, therapeutic used and commercial utility as Pharmaceutical
Aids and/or Medicines for the following Primary metabolites:
Carbohydrates: Acacia, Agar, Tragacanth, Honey.
Proteins and Enzymes: Gelatin, casein, proteolytic enzymes (Papain, bromelain,
serratiopeptidase, urokinase, streptokinase, pepsin).
Lipids(Waxes, fats, fixed oils): Castor oil, Chaulmoogra oil, Wool Fat, Bees Wax.
Marine Drugs: Novel medicinal agents from marine sources

BP408 P.


4 Hours/Week
1. Analysis of crude drugs by chemical tests:
(ii) Acacia
(iii) Agar
(iv) Gelatin
(v) starch
(vi) Honey
(vii) Castor oil.
2. Determination of stomatal number and index.
3. Determination of vein islet number, vein islet termination and paliside ratio.
4. Determination of size of starch grains, calcium oxalate crystals by eye
piece micrometer.
5. Determination of Fiber length and width.
6. Determination of number of starch grains by Lycopodium spore method.
7. Determination of Ash value.
8. Determination of Extractive values of crude drugs.
9. Determination of moisture content of crude drugs.
10. Determination of swelling index and foaming.

Recommended Books: (LatestEditions)

1. W. C. Evans, Trease and Evans Pharmacognosy, 16th edition, W.B. Sounders &
London, 2009.
2. Tyler, V.E., Brady, L.R. and Robbers, J.E., Pharmacognosy, 9th Edn., Lea and
Febiger, Philadelphia, 1988.
3. Text Book of Pharmacognosy by T.E. Wallis
4. Mohammad Ali. Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, CBS
Publishers & Distribution, New Delhi.
5. Text book of Pharmacognosy by C.K. Kokate, Purohit, Gokhlae (2007), 37th
Edition, Nirali Prakashan, New Delhi.
6. Herbal drug industry by R.D. Choudhary (1996), Ist Edn, Eastern Publisher, New
7. Essentials of Pharmacognosy, Dr.SH.Ansari, IInd edition, Birla publications, New
Delhi, 2007.
8. Practical Pharmacognosy: C.K. Kokate, Purohit, Gokhlae.
9. Anatomy of Crude Drugs by M.A. Iyengar.

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