B Pharma Pharmacy 3rd Semester Syllabus


Pharma Pharmacy 3rd Semester Syllabus

SEMESTER 2


BP301T. 

PHARMACEUTICAL ORGANIC CHEMISTRY –II (Theory)

45 Hours

Scope: This subject deals with general methods of preparation and reactions of some

organic compounds. Reactivity of organic compounds are also studied here. The syllabus
emphasizes on mechanisms and orientation of reactions. Chemistry of fats and oils are
also included in the syllabus.
Objectives: Upon completion of the course the student shall be able to
1. Write the structure, name and the type of isomerism of the organic compound
2. Write the reaction, name the reaction and orientation of reactions
3. Account for reactivity/stability of compounds,
4. Prepare organic compounds.
Course Content:
General methods of preparation and reactions of compounds superscripted with asterisk (*)
to be explained.
To emphasize on definition, types, classification, principles/mechanisms, applications,
examples and differences

Unit I 10 Hours

 Benzene and its derivatives
A. Analytical, synthetic and other evidences in the derivation of structure of benzene,
Orbital picture, resonance in benzene, aromatic characters, Huckel’s rule
B. Reactions of benzene – nitration, sulphonation, halogenation- reactivity,
Friedelcrafts alkylation-reactivity, limitations, Friedelcrafts acylation.
C. Substituents, effect of substituents on reactivity and orientation of mono
substituted benzene compounds towards electrophilic substitution reaction.
D. Structure and uses of DDT, Saccharin, BHC and Chloramine.

Unit II 10 Hours

 Phenols* – Acidity of phenols, effect of substituents on acidity, qualitative tests,
Structure and uses of phenol, cresols, resorcinol, naphthols
 Aromatic Amines* – Basicity of amines, effect of substituents on basicity, and
synthetic uses of aryl diazonium salts
 Aromatic Acids*– Acidity, effect of substituents on acidity and important reactions
of benzoic acid.

Unit III 10 Hours

 Fats and oils
a. Fatty acids – reactions.
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b. Hydrolysis, Hydrogenation, Saponification and Rancidity of oils, Drying oils.
c. Analytical constants– Acid value, Saponification value, Ester value, Iodine value,
Acetyl value, Reichert Meissl (RM) value– significance and principle involved in their
determination.

Unit IV 08 Hours

 Polynuclear hydrocarbons:
a. Synthesis, reactions
b. Structure and medicinal uses of Naphthalene, Phenanthrene, Anthracene,
Diphenylmethane, Triphenylmethane and their derivatives.

Unit V 07 Hours

 Cycloalkanes*
Stabilities – Baeyer’s strain theory, limitation of Baeyer’s strain theory, Coulson and
Moffitt’s modification, Sachse Mohr’s theory (Theory of strainless rings), reactions of
cyclopropane and cyclobutane only.
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BP305P 

.PHARMACEUTICAL ORGANIC CHEMISTRY -II (Practical)

4 Hrs/week
I Experiments involving laboratory techniques
 Recrystallization
 Steam distillation
II Determination of following oil values (including standardization of reagents)
 Acid value
 Saponification value
 Iodine value
III Preparation of compounds
 Benzanilide/Phenyl benzoate/Acetanilide from Aniline/ Phenol
/Aniline by acylation reaction.
 2,4,6-Tribromo aniline/Para bromo acetanilide from Aniline/
 Acetanilide by halogenation (Bromination) reaction.
 5-Nitro salicylic acid/Meta di nitro benzene from Salicylic acid /
Nitro benzene by nitration reaction.
 Benzoic acid from Benzyl chloride by oxidation reaction.
 Benzoic acid/ Salicylic acid from alkyl benzoate/ alkyl salicylate by
hydrolysis reaction.
 1-Phenyl azo-2-napthol from Aniline by diazotization and coupling
reactions.
 Benzil from Benzoin by oxidation reaction.
 Dibenzal acetone from Benzaldehyde byClaison Schmidt reaction
 Cinnammic acid from Benzaldehyde by Perkin reaction
 P-Iodo benzoic acid from P-amino benzoic acid

Recommended Books (Latest Editions)

1. Organic Chemistry by Morrison R.T., Boyd R.N. and Bhattacharjee, S.K. Dorling
Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd. (Pearson Education Ltd.), New Delhi
2. Organic Chemistry by I.L. Finar , Volume-I, Pearson Education Ltd, New Delhi.
3. Textbook of Organic Chemistry by B.S. Bahl & Arun Bahl.
4. Practical Organic Chemistry by Mann and Saunders.
5. Vogel’s Text book of Practical Organic Chemistry
6. Advanced Practical Organic Chemistry by N.K.Vishnoi.
7. Introduction to Organic LaboratoryTechniques by Pavia, Lampman and Kriz.
8. Reaction and Reaction Mechanism by Ahluwaliah/Chatwal.
9. A Guidebook to Mechanism in Organic Chemistry- by Sykes P., Longman Group Ltd,
London.
10. Organic Chemistry- by Jain M.K., Sohan Lal Nagin Chand & Co, New Delhi.
11. Organic Chemistry by P.L.Soni.
12. Advanced Practical organic chemistry by N.K.Vishnoi.
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BP302T. 

PHYSICAL PHARMACEUTICS-I(Theory)

45Hours
Scope: The course deals with the various physica and physicochemical properties, and
principles involved in dosage forms/formulations. Theory and practical
components of the subject help the student to get a better insight into various
areas of formulation research and development, and stability studies of
pharmaceutical dosage forms.
Objectives: Upon the completion of the course student shall be able to
1. Understand various physicochemical properties of drug molecules in the
designing the dosage forms.
2. Know the principles of chemical kinetics & to use them for stability testing and
determination of expiry date of formulations.
3. Demonstrate use of physicochemical properties in the formulation.
development and evaluation of dosage forms.
Course Content:

Unit I 10 Hours

Solubility of drugs: Solubility expressions, mechanisms of solute solvent interactions,
ideal solubility parameters, solvation & association, quantitative approach to the factors
influencing solubility of drugs, diffusion principles in biological systems. Solubility
of gas in liquids, solubility of liquids in liquids, (Binary solutions, ideal solutions)
Raoult’s law, real solutions. Partially miscible liquids, Critical solution temperature and
applications. Distribution law, its limitations and applications.

Unit II 10 Hours

States of Matter and properties of matter: State of matter, changes in the state of matter,
latent heats, vapor pressure, sublimation critical point, eutectic mixtures, gases, aerosols
– inhalers, relative humidity, liquid complexes, liquid crystals, glassy states, solidcrystalline, amorphous & polymorphism.
Physicochemical properties of drug molecules: Refractive index, optical rotation,
dielectric constant, dipole moment, dissociation constant, determinations and applications.

Unit III 08 Hours

Surface and interfacial phenomenon: Liquid interface, surface & interfacial tensions,
surface free energy, measurement of surface & interfacial tensions, spreading
coefficient, adsorption at liquid interfaces, surface active agents, HLB Scale,
solubilization, detergency, adsorption at solid interface.
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Unit IV 08Hours

Complexation and protein binding: Introduction, Classification of Complexation,
Applications, methods of analysis, protein binding, Complexation and drug action,
crystalline structures of complexes and thermodynamic treatment of stability constants.

Unit V 07 Hours

pH, buffers and Isotonic solutions: Sorensen’s pH scale, pH
determination (electrometric and calorimetric), applications of buffers, buffer equation,
buffer capacity, buffers in pharmaceutical and biological systems, buffered isotonic
solutions.
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BP306P

PHYSICAL PHARMACEUTICS – I (Practical)

1. Determination the solubility of drug at room temperature.
4 Hrs/week
 2. Determination of pKa value by Half Neutralization/ Henderson Hasselbalch equation.
3. Determination of Partition co- efficient of benzoic acid in benzene and water.
4. Determination of Partition co- efficient of Iodine in CCl4 and water.
5. Determination of % composition of NaCl in a solution using phenol-water system by
CST method.
6. Determination of surface tension of given liquids by drop count and drop weight
method.
7. Determination of HLB number of a surfactant by saponification method.
8. Determination of Freundlich and Langmuir constants using activated char coal.
9. Determination of critical micellar concentration of surfactants.
10. Determination of stability constant and donor acceptor ratio of PABA-Caffeine
complex by solubilitymethod.
11. Determination of stability constant and donor acceptor ratio of Cupric-Glycine
complex by pH titration method.

Recommended Books: (Latest Editions)

1. Physical Pharmacy by Alfred Martin.
2. Experimental Pharmaceutics by Eugene, Parott.
3. Tutorial Pharmacy by Cooper and Gunn.
4. Stocklosam J. Pharmaceutical Calculations, Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia.
5. Liberman H.A, Lachman C., Pharmaceutical Dosage forms, Tablets, Volume-1 to
3, MarcelDekkar Inc.
6. Liberman H.A, Lachman C, Pharmaceutical Dosage forms. Disperse systems,
volume 1, 2, 3. Marcel Dekkar Inc.
7. Physical Pharmaceutics by RamasamyC and ManavalanR.
8. LaboratoryManual of Physical Pharmaceutics, C.V.S. Subramanyam, J.
Thimma settee.
9. Physical Pharmaceutics by C.V.S. Subramanyam.
10. Test book of Physical Phramacy, by Gaurav Jain & Roop K. Khar.
11. Physical Pharmaceutics- by Shotten E & Ridgeway K, Oxford University Press,
London.
3. Essentials of Physical Pharmacy- by D.V. Derle.
4. Modern Pharmaceutics, Banker and Rhodes.
5. Pharmaceutics- by Aulton, M.E, The Design and Manufacture Of Medicines,
Churchill Livingstone.
6. Hajare, A. Physical Pharmacy, New Central Book Agency Pvt. Ltd., Kolkata.
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BP 303 T. 

PHARMACEUTICAL MICROBIOLOGY (Theory)

Scope:
45 Hours
Study of all categories of microorganisims especially for the production of alcohol
antibiotics, vaccines, vitamins enzymes etc.
Objectives: Upon completion of the subject student shall be able to;
1. Understand methods of identification, cultivation and preservation of
various microorganisms
2. To understand the importance and implementation of sterlization in
pharmaceutical processing and industry
3. Learn sterility testing of pharmaceutical products.
4. Carried out microbiological standardization of Pharmaceuticals.
5. Understand the cell culture technology and its applications in pharmaceutical
industries.
Course content:

Unit I 10 Hours

Introduction, history of microbiology, its branches, scope and its importance.
Introduction to Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes
Study of ultra-structure and morphological classification of bacteria, nutritional
requirements, raw materials used for culture media and physical parameters for growth,
growth curve, isolation and preservation methods for pure cultures, cultivation of
anaerobes, quantitative measurement of bacterial growth (total & viable count).
Study of different types of phase contrast microscopy, dark field microscopy
and electron microscopy.

Unit II 10 Hours

Identification of bacteria using staining techniques (simple, Gram’s &Acid fast staining)
and biochemical tests (IMViC).
Study of principle, procedure, merits, demerits and applications of physical, chemical
gaseous, radiation and mechanical method of sterilization.
Evaluation of the efficiency of sterilization methods.
Equipments employed in large scale sterilization. Sterility indicators.
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 Unit III 10 Hours

Study of morphology, classification, reproduction/replication and cultivation of
Fungi and Viruses.
Classification and mode of action of disinfectants
Factors influencing disinfection, antiseptics and their evaluation.
For bacteriostatic and bactericidal actions.
Evaluation of bactericidal & Bacteriostatic.
Sterility testing of products (solids, liquids, ophthalmic and other sterile products)
according to IP, BP and USP.

Unit IV 08 Hours

Designing of aseptic area, laminar flow equipments; study of different sources of
contamination in an aseptic area and methods of prevention, clean area classification.
Principles and methods of different microbiological assay. Methods for
standardization of antibiotics, vitamins and amino acids.
Assessment of a new antibiotic.

Unit V 07Hours

Types of spoilage, factors affecting the microbial spoilage of pharmaceutical
products, sources and types of microbial contaminants, assessment of microbial
contamination and spoilage.
Preservation of pharmaceutical products using antimicrobial agents, evaluation of
microbial stability of formulations.
Growth of animal cells in culture, general procedure for cell culture, Primary,
established and transformed cell cultures.
Application of cell cultures in pharmaceutical industry and research.
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BP 307P.

PHARMACEUTICAL MICROBIOLOGY (Practical)

4 Hrs/week
1. Introduction and study of different equipments and processing, e.g., B.O.D. incubator,
laminar flow, aseptic hood, autoclave, hot air sterilizer, deep freezer, refrigerator,
microscopes used in experimental microbiology.
2. Sterilization of glassware, preparation and sterilization of media.
3. Sub culturing of bacteria and fungus. Nutrient stabs and slants preparations.
4. Staining methods- Simple, Grams staining and acid fast staining (Demonstration with
practical).
5. Isolation of pure culture of micro-organisms by multiple streak plate technique and other
techniques.
6. Microbiological assay of antibiotics by cup plate method and other methods
7. Motility determination by Hanging drop method.
8. Sterility testing of pharmaceuticals.
9. Bacteriological analysis of water
10. Biochemical test.

Recommended Books (Latest edition)

1. W.B. Hugo and A.D. Russel: Pharmaceutical Microbiology, Blackwell Scientific
Publications, Oxford London.
2. Prescott and Dunn., Industrial Microbiology, 4
th
edition, CBS Publishers & Distributors,
Delhi.
3. Pelczar, Chan Kreig, Microbiology, Tata McGraw Hill edn.
4. Malcolm Harris, Balliere Tindall and Cox: Pharmaceutical Microbiology.
5. Rose: Industrial Microbiology.
6. Probisher, Hinsdill et al: Fundamentals of Microbiology, 9th ed. Japan
7. Cooper and Gunn’s: Tutorial Pharmacy, CBS Publisher and Distribution.
8. Peppler: Microbial Technology.
9. I.P., B.P., U.S.P.- latest editions.
10. Ananthnarayan : Text Book of Microbiology, Orient-Longman, Chennai
11. Edward: Fundamentals of Microbiology.
12. N.K.Jain: Pharmaceutical Microbiology, Vallabh Prakashan, Delhi
13. Bergeys manual of systematic bacteriology, Williams and Wilkins- A Waverly company.
14. Sykes G., Disinfection and Sterilization: Theory and Practice, General and Industrial
Chemistry Seris, Spon.
15. Hugo and Russell, Pharmaceutical Microbiology, Black Well Scientific Publication,
Oxford.
16. Stanier R.Y., Ingraham, J.L., Wheelis M.L., Painter P.R. General Microbiology,
Macmillan Press Limited.
52

BP 304 T.

PHARMACEUTICALENGINEERING (Theory)

45 Hours
Scope: This course is designed to impart a fundamental knowledge on the art and science
of various unit operations used in pharmaceutical industry.
Objectives: Upon completion of the course student shall be able:
1. To know various unit operations used in Pharmaceutical industries.
2. To understand the material handling techniques.
3. To perform various processes involved in pharmaceutical manufacturing process.
4. To carry out various test to prevent environmental pollution.
5. To appreciate and comprehend significance of plant lay out design for optimum
use of resources.
6. To appreciate the various preventive methods used for corrosion control in
Pharmaceutical industries.
Course content:

Unit I 10 Hours

 Flow of fluids: Types of manometers, Reynolds number and its significance,
Bernoulli’s theorem and its applications, Energy losses, Orifice meter,
Venturimeter, Pitot tube and Rotometer.
 Size Reduction: Objectives, Mechanisms & Laws governing size reduction,
factors affecting size reduction, principles, construction, working, uses, merits and
demerits of Hammer mill, ball mill, fluid energy mill, Edge runner mill & end
runner mill.
 Size Separation: Objectives, applications & mechanism of size separation,
official standards of powders, sieves, size separation Principles, construction,
working, uses, merits and demerits of Sieve shaker, cyclone separator, Air
separator, Bag filter & elutriation tank.

Unit II 10 Hours

 Heat Transfer: Objectives, applications & Heat transfer mechanisms. Fourier’s
law, Heat transfer by conduction, convection & radiation. Heat interchangers &
heat exchangers.
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 Evaporation: Objectives, applications and factors influencing evaporation,
differences between evaporation and other heat process. principles, construction,
working, uses, merits and demerits of Steam jacketed kettle, horizontal tube
evaporator, climbing film evaporator, forced circulation evaporator, multiple
effect evaporator& Economy of multiple effect evaporator.
 Distillation: Basic Principles and methodology of simple distillation,flash
distillation, fractional distillation, distillation under reduced pressure, steam
distillation & molecular distillation

Unit III 08 Hours

 Drying: Objectives, applications & mechanism of drying process, measurements
& applications of Equilibrium Moisture content, rate of drying curve. principles,
construction, working, uses, merits and demerits of Tray dryer, drum dryer spray
dryer, fluidized bed dryer, vacuum dryer, freeze dryer.
 Mixing: Objectives, applications & factors affecting mixing, Difference between
solid and liquid mixing, mechanism of solid mixing, liquids mixing and
semisolids mixing. Principles, Construction, Working, uses, Merits and Demerits
of Double cone blender, twin shell blender, ribbon blender, Sigma blade mixer,
planetarymixers, Propellers, Turbines, Paddles & Silverson Emulsifier,

Unit IV 08 Hours

 Filtration: Objectives, applications, Theories & Factors influencing filtration,
filter aids, filter medias. Principle, Construction, Working, Uses, Merits and
demerits of plate & frame filter, filter leaf, rotary drum filter, Meta filter &
Cartridge filter, membrane filters and Seidtz filter.
 Centrifugation: Objectives, principle & applications of Centrifugation,
principles, construction, working, uses, merits and demerits of Perforated basket
centrifuge, Non-perforated basket centrifuge, semi continuous centrifuge & super
centrifuge.

Unit V 07 Hours

 Materials of pharmaceutical plant construction, Corrosion and its
prevention: Factors affecting during materials selected for Pharmaceutical plant
construction, Theories of corrosion, types of corrosion and there prevention.
Ferrous and nonferrous metals, inorganic and organic non metals, basic of
material handling systems.
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 Recommended Books: (Latest Editions)

 1. Introduction to chemical engineering – Walter L Badger & Julius Banchero,
Latest edition.
 2. Solid phase extraction, principles, techniques and applications by Nigel J.K.
Simpson- Latest edition.
 3. Unit operation of chemical engineering – Mcabe Smith, Latest edition.
 4. Pharmaceutical engineering principles and practices – C.V.S Subrahmanyam et al.,
Latest edition.
5. Remington practice of pharmacy- Martin, Latest edition.
6. Theory and practice of industrial pharmacy by Lachmann., Latest edition.
7. Physical pharmaceutics- C.V.S Subrahmanyam et al., Latest edition.
8. Cooper and Gunn’s Tutorial pharmacy, S.J. Carter, Latest edition.
55

BP308P – 

PHARMACEUTICAL ENGINEERING(Practical)

4 Hours/week
I. Determination of radiation constant of brass, iron, unpainted and painted glass.
II. Steam distillation – To calculate the efficiency of steam distillation.
III. To determine the overall heat transfer coefficient by heat exchanger.
IV. Construction of drying curves (for calcium carbonate and starch).
V. Determination of moisture content and loss on drying.
VI. Determination of humidity of air – i) From wet and dry bulb temperatures –use of
Dew point method.
VII. Description of Construction working and application of Pharmaceutical
Machinery such as rotary tablet machine, fluidized bed coater, fluid energy mill,
de humidifier.
VIII. Size analysis by sieving – To evaluate size distribution of tablet granulations –
Construction of various size frequency curves including arithmetic
andlogarithmic probability plots.
IX. Size reduction: To verify the laws of size reduction using ball mill and
determining Kicks, Rittinger’s, Bond’s coefficients, power requirement and critical
speed of Ball Mill.
X. Demonstration of colloid mill, planetary mixer, fluidized bed dryer, freeze dryer
and such othermajor equipment.
XI. Factors affecting Rate of Filtration and Evaporation (Surface area, Concentration
and Thickness/ viscosity
XII. To study the effect of time on the Rate of Crystallization.
 XIII. To calculate the uniformity Index for given sample by using Double Cone
Blender.

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