B Pharma Pharmacy 2nd Semester Syllabus
(PHARMACEUTICAL ORGANIC CHEMISTRY)
Introduction, classification and nomenclature of organic compounds.
Electron displacement in organic chemistry (inductive effect, resonance, hyperconjugation).
Stereochemistry including geometrical isomerism, optical isomerism, specification of configuration and
Reaction intermediates (free radicals, carbocations, carbanions, carbenes and nitrenes).
Introduction to aliphatic hydrocarbons and some of their characteristic reactions with mechanisms such as;
alkanes (free radical substitution), alkenes and dienes (electrophilic and free radical additions), alkynes,
cycloalkanes (types of strain including Baeyer strain theory).
Introduction to aliphatic organic compounds and some of their characteristic reactions with mechanisms
such as; alkyl halides and alcohols (nucleophilic substitution and nucleophilic elimination), amines,
aldehydes and ketones (nucleophilic addition), carboxylic acids and their derivatives (nucleophilic acyl
Introduction to aromatic organic compounds, aromaticity, structure of benzene, electrophilic substitution,
orientation and reactivity in electrophilic aromatic substitution, nucleophilic substitution, arenes, phenols.
Polynuclear hydrocarbons (naphthalene).
Introduction to synthetic organic chemistry: α, β- Unsaturated carbonyl compounds. Compounds
containing active methylene group (acetoacetic ester), organometallic compounds (Grignard’s reagent),
aryl diazonium salts and their synthetic importance.
Name reactions (including reaction mechanisms) and synthetic applications: Meerwein-Ponndorf-Verley
reduction, Hofmann rearrangement, Mannich reaction, Diels Alder reaction.
PHARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTRY-II(PHARMACEUTICAL ORGANIC CHEMISTRY-I)
1. Identification of organic compounds (including elements and functional groups).
2. Synthesis of compounds involving acetylation, benzoylation, bromination, reduction and oxidation.
3. Purification of solvents like benzene, chloroform, acetone and preparation of absolute alcohol.
1. Morrison R.T., Boyd R.N. and Bhattacharjee, S.K. Organic Chemistry, Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt.
Ltd. (Pearson Education Ltd.), New Delhi.
2. Finar I.L. Organic Chemistry, Vol. I & II, Pearson Education Ltd, New Delhi.
3. Bruice P.Y. and Prasad, K. J. R. Organic Chemistry, Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd, New Delhi.
4. Sykes P., A Guidebook to Mechanism in Organic Chemistry, Longman Group Ltd, London.
5. Singh M.S. Advanced Organic Chemistry: Reactions and Mechanisms, Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt.
Ltd, New Delhi.
6. Jain M.K. Organic Chemistry, Sohan Lal Nagin Chand & Co, New Delhi.
7. Mann F.G, and Saunders, B.C., Practical Organic Chemistry, Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd.
(Pearson Education Ltd.), New Delhi.
8. Vogel A.I., Elementary Practical Organic Chemistry, Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd. (Pearson
Education Ltd.), New Delhi.
PHARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTRY-III(PHARMACEUTICAL PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY)
Atomic structure and chemical bonding: Atomic structure, atomic orbital, molecular orbital,
hybridization, covalent (sigma and pi) bond, electrovalent bond.
Chemical kinetics: Elementary idea of reaction kinetics-zero, first and second order reaction, complex
reactions. Characteristics of homogenous and heterogeneous catalysis, acid-base and enzyme catalysis.
Distribution law: Distribution law and application to solvent extraction.
Matter and its properties: Physical properties (surface tension, parachor, viscosity, rheochor, refractive
index, optical rotation, dipole moment). Liquid crystals, glassy state, crystalline and amorphous solids and
Thermodynamics: Fundamentals, first, second, third and zeroth law, Joule-Thompson’s effect, absolute
temperature scale, conversion of temperature between different scales.
Thermo chemistry: Definition and sign conventions. Heat of reaction: heat of formation, heat of
combustion, heat of neutralization, heat of solution, heat of phase changes. Bond enthalpies and Hess’s law
of constant heat summation.
Electro-chemistry: Faraday’s laws of electrolysis, electric conductance and its measurement, molar and
equivalent conductivity and its variation with dilution. Transport number and Kohlrausch law, degree of
ionization and Ostwald dilution law. Theory of strong electrolytes (Debye Huckle theory).
Adsorption: Definition, types and mechanism of adsorption, pharmaceutical applications of adsorption.
Phase equilibria: Phase, component, degree of freedom, sublimation critical point, cooling curves, phase
rule. One and two component systems (e.g. water, KI-H2O).
PHARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTRY-III(PHARMACEUTICAL PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY)
1. Determination refractive index of given liquids.
2. Determination of specific rotation of sucrose at various concentrations and determination of the
3. Determination of rate constant of a simple reaction.
4. Determination of cell constant, verify Ostwald dilution law and perform conductometric titrations.
5. Determination of surface tension.
6. Determination of partition co-efficient.
7. Determination of viscosity.
8. Determine the parachor value.
9. Determine the rheochor value.
10. Determination of solubility.
1. Engel T., Reid P. Physical Chemistry, Pearson Education, London.
2. Tinoco I.J., Sauer K., Wang J.C. and Puglisi J.D. Physical Chemistry principles and applications in
biological sciences, Pearson Education, New Delhi.
3. Martin A., Bustamante P. and Chun A.H.C- Physical Pharmacy, Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia.
4. Mark L. Introduction to Physical Chemistry, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
5. Levine Ira N. Physical Chemistry, Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company, New Delhi.
6. Barrow G.M. Physical Chemistry, Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company, New Delhi.
7. Atkins P. and Paula, J.D. Atkins Physical Chemistry, Oxford University Press, New Delhi.
8. Bhasin S.K. Pharmaceutical Physical Chemistry, Pearson Education, New Delhi.
9. Negi A.S. and Anand S.C. Textbook of Physical Chemistry, Wiley Eastern Ltd, New Delhi.
ANATOMY, PHYSIOLOGY AND PATHOPHYSIOLOGY-II
Central nervous system: Anatomy of different parts of brain and spinal cord, reflex action,
electroencephalogram, specialized functions of the brain. Cranial nerves and their functions.
Autonomic nervous system: Physiology of the autonomic nervous system. Neurotransmitters, mechanism
of neurohumoral transmission.
Haemopoietic system: Composition and function of blood and its elements, erythropoiesis, blood groups,
blood coagulation, Anemia.
Lymphatic system: Composition, formation and circulation of lymph, lymph node and spleen, thymus and
pathophysiology of hypersensitivity and allergy.
Urinary system: Anatomy and physiology of urinary system, physiology of urine formation, acid-base
balance, pathophysiology of renal failure, glomerulonephiritis, urinary tract infection.
Digestive system: Parts of digestive system, their structure and functions. Various gastro-intestinal
secretions and their role.
Pathology of peptic ulcer, ulcerative colitis, irritable bowel syndrome, hepatitis, cirrhosis of liver,
ANATOMY, PHYSIOLOGY AND PATHOPHYSIOLOGY-II
1. Microscopic study of different tissues.
2. Haematological experiments:
a) Estimation of haemoglobin in blood.
b) Determination of bleeding time, clotting time.
c) R.B.C. Count.
d) Total leucocyte count (TLC), Differential leukocyte count (D.L.C.)
e) E.S.R. and blood group.
3. Recording of body temperature, pulse rate and blood pressure.
1. Difore S.H., Atlas of Normal Histology, Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia.
2. Tortora, G.J., Anagnodokos N.P., Principles of Anatomy and Physiology, Harper & Rave Publishers,
3. Dipiro J.L., Pharmacotherapy- A Pathophysiological Approach, Elsevier, Amsterdam.
4. Seeley R.R., Stephens T.D. and Tate, P. Essentials of Anatomy and Physiology, McGraw-Hill, New
5. Guyton A.C., Hall JE., Text book of Medical Physiology, WB Saunders Company, Philadelphia.
6. Ross and Wilson, Anatomy and Physiology in Health and Illness, Churchill Livingstone, London.
7. Chatterjee C.C. Human Physiology, Medical Allied Agency, Calcutta.
8. Zdanowicz, M. M. Essentials of Pathophysiology for Pharmacy, CRC Press, Boca Raton.
9. Chaurasia B.D, Human Anatomy, Regional & Applied Part I, II & III, CBS Publishers & Distributors,
10. Sood, R. Medical Laboratory Technology: Methods and Interpretation, Jaypee Brothers, New Delhi.
Definition history, scope and development of pharmacognosy.
Source of drug: Biological, marine, mineral and plant tissue culture as source of drugs.
Classification of drugs: Morphological, taxonomical, chemical and pharmacological, chemotaxonomy.
Plant Description: Morphology and anatomy of leaves, woods, barks, inflorescences and flowers, fruits
Propagation, cultivation, collection, processing and storage of crude drugs:
a. Factors influencing cultivation of medicinal plants, type of soils and fertilizers of common use.
b. Pest management and natural pest control agents.
c. Plant hormones and their applications.
d. Polyploidy, mutation and hybridization with reference to medicinal plants.
e. Poly Houses/ Green houses for cultivation.
Quality control of crude drugs: Adulteration of crude drugs and their detection by organoleptic,
microscopic, physical, chemical and biological methods of evaluation (including quantitative microscopy).
Systematic pharmacognostic study of following:
Carbohydrates and derived products: Agar, Acacia, Honey, Isabgol, Starch, Tragacanth.
Lipids: Beeswax, Castor oil, Coca butter, Kokum butter, Hydnocarpus oil, Cod liver oil, Linseed oil, Wool
fat, Rice-bran oil.
1. Morphological characteristics of plant parts mentioned in theory.
2. Microscopical measurements of cell and cell contents-starch grains, calcium oxalate crystals and
3. Determination of leaf constants such as stomatal index, stomatal numbers, vein islet numbers, vein
termination number and palisade ratio.
4. Identification of crude drugs belonging to carbohydrates and lipids.
5. Preparation of herbarium sheets.
1. Pharmacopoeia of India, 2010 Edition, The Controller of publications, Vol. III, Delhi.
2. Trease G.E. and Evans W.C., Pharmacognosy, Bailleire Tindall, East Bourne.
3. Wallis T.E., Text book of Pharmacognosy, J & A Churchill, Ltd, London.
4. Wallis T.E., Analytical Microscopy, J & A Churchill Limited, London.
5. Brain K.R. and Turner T D. The Practical Evaluation of Phytopharmaceuticals, Wright-Scientechnica,
6. Dutta A.C, Botany, Oxford University Press, New Delhi.
7. Schewer P.J., Marine Natural Products, Academic Press, London.
8. Wallis T.E. Practical Pharmacognosy, PharmaMed Press, Hyderabad.
9. Kokate C.K. Practical Pharmacognosy, Vallabh Prakashan, Delhi.
PHARMACEUTICAL MATHEMATICS AND BIOSTATISTICS
Determinants, properties of determinants, solution of simultaneous equations by Cramer’s rule. Matrices,
properties of matrices, solution of simultaneous equations by matrices. Pharmaceutical applications of
determinants and matrices.
Limit of functions, differentiation of logarithmic, trigonometric and exponential function (not proof), chain
rule, integration as reverse of differentiation, method of substitution, integration by parts.
Methods of collection of data, diagrammatic representation of data (Pie, Histogram, Bar diagram), types of
sampling; mean, median, mode and standard deviation.
Karl Pearson’s coefficient of correlation, regression, method of least square of straight line, t-test, χ² test,
Probability: Simple probability, addition and multiplication of probabilities, binomial, Poisson’s and
PHARMACEUTICAL MATHEMATICS AND BIOSTATISTICS PROJECT
1. Collection of data by survey methods.
2. Classification and tabulation of data.
3. Frequency distribution table for collected data (discrete and continuous).
4. Calculation of mean, median, mode, standard deviation and coefficient of variation for collected data.
5. Graphical representation of frequency distribution of collected data (histogram, frequency polygram,
frequency curve and ogive curve).
6. Chi-square testing for data analysis.
1. Blair R.C., Taylor, R.A. Biostatistics for the Health Sciences, Dorling Kindersley India Pvt., Ltd.
2. Gupta S.P. Statistical Methods, Sultan Chand & Sons, New Delhi.
3. Khan I.A. and Khanum, A. Biostatistics for Pharmacy, Ukaaz Publications, Hyderabad.
4. Prasad G. Textbook of Differential Calculus, Pothishala Pvt. Ltd, Allahabad.
5. Prasad G. Textbook of Integral Calculus, Pothishala Pvt. Ltd, Allahabad.
6. A Textbook of Mathematics for XI-XII Students, Vol. I-IV, NCERT Publications, New Delhi.
Scheme of Evaluation (Choice Based Credit System) Bachelor of Pharmacy (B. Pharm.) SECOND SEMESTER
|B PHARMA PHARMACY 2ND SEMESTER EVALUATION SCHEME|